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Thermocouples are widely used in automotive industry for temperature testing at product design and EOL (End of Line) stages and for permanent monitoring afterwards. However, with the increasing voltage levels in Emobility thermocouples possess many risks in product design and testing stages. Some of them are safety related risk and have potential to be life threatening for employees (research and test engineers).

Thermocouples are based on the principles, that a small voltage (in milli-volts) gets produced when a junction (joint) of two dissimilar metal wires is cooled or heated. The generated voltage signal is measured at the other end of the metal wires and calibrated for the temperature range. During the temperature testing the junction end is put on the test object and voltage is being measured at the other end to estimate the temperature of test object.

Now imagine if the two metal wires are put on the 1000 V Battery or Motor for temperature testing and somehow the test engineers touch the wire by mistake. Even worse how accurate will be the milli-volt signal when it passes through an environment where there is high electric and magnetic field.

Without getting into more technicality let us take a closer look on the common reasons why thermocouples have failed in Emobility testing and should be replaced with intrinsically safe sensors.

1. Safety

It is very obvious and common sensical thing to find out the safety risk of using thermocouples in Emobility testing, especially when test engineers have to adjust sensing location such as finding the right hot spot or reach to the measuring points that are not easily accessible (Inverters, Stator Windings, Battery Cooling duct). Thermocouples are subject to creating a short circuit and electrocution risks to the employees.


2. Noise

With the Emobility going towards 1000V and even higher 2500V (for commercial vehicles), thermocouples are highly susceptible to noise. The milli-volt signal requires lot of isolation under such large voltages and even then, the signal is not clear enough to measure accurate temperature.



3. Larger Size  

Thermocouples are not suitable for Emobility applications that has very tiny space for putting sensors such as Charging Points, Invertor IGBTs, Battery Inter-cell temperature measurement etc. It has been observed that thermocouples are less responsive and inaccurate (up to 20 to 30 Deg Celsius) if they are not put directly on the charging points. 


4. Non-Linearity Over The Range  

Though the thermocouples are calibrated for a certain range, they still need complex compensation algorithm to maintain linearity over the range since they are being used at harsh conditions (High electric, chemical and magnetic fields) and different test environments.



5. Longer Response Time  

Faster and accurate measurement is critical for Emobility during the performance, life cycle and abuse testing. Not only the accuracy, thermocouples are also limited by the response time requirements of Emobility applications such as detection of Thermal Runaway Issues, Charging Point Temperature, Stator Winding Temperature etc.


6. Poor Repeatability 

Thermocouples are made of two dissimilar metallic wires and susceptive to material purity which varies from batch to batch and manufacturer to manufacturer. This variation creates calibration issues resulting into non-repeatability of accurate measurements. Further the chemical composition of metal changes with time especially if they are put into chemical environment like Batteries.


Description:

Thermocouples are widely used in automotive industry for temperature testing at product design and EOL (End of Line) stages and for permanent monitoring afterwards. However, with the increasing voltage levels in Emobility thermocouples possess many risks in product design and testing stages. Some of them are safety related risk and have potential to be life threatening for employees (research and test engineers).

Thermocouples are based on the principles, that a small voltage (in milli-volts) gets produced when a junction (joint) of two dissimilar metal wires is cooled or heated. The generated voltage signal is measured at the other end of the metal wires and calibrated for the temperature range. During the temperature testing the junction end is put on the test object and voltage is being measured at the other end to estimate the temperature of test object.

Now imagine if the two metal wires are put on the 1000 V Battery or Motor for temperature testing and somehow the test engineers touch the wire by mistake. Even worse how accurate will be the milli-volt signal when it passes through an environment where there is high electric and magnetic field.

Without getting into more technicality let us take a closer look on the common reasons why thermocouples have failed in Emobility testing and should be replaced with intrinsically safe sensors.

1. Safety

It is very obvious and common sensical thing to find out the safety risk of using thermocouples in Emobility testing, especially when test engineers have to adjust sensing location such as finding the right hot spot or reach to the measuring points that are not easily accessible (Inverters, Stator Windings, Battery Cooling duct). Thermocouples are subject to creating a short circuit and electrocution risks to the employees.


2. Noise

With the Emobility going towards 1000V and even higher 2500V (for commercial vehicles), thermocouples are highly susceptible to noise. The milli-volt signal requires lot of isolation under such large voltages and even then, the signal is not clear enough to measure accurate temperature.



3. Larger Size  

Thermocouples are not suitable for Emobility applications that has very tiny space for putting sensors such as Charging Points, Invertor IGBTs, Battery Inter-cell temperature measurement etc. It has been observed that thermocouples are less responsive and inaccurate (up to 20 to 30 Deg Celsius) if they are not put directly on the charging points. 


4. Non-Linearity Over The Range  

Though the thermocouples are calibrated for a certain range, they still need complex compensation algorithm to maintain linearity over the range since they are being used at harsh conditions (High electric, chemical and magnetic fields) and different test environments.



5. Longer Response Time  

Faster and accurate measurement is critical for Emobility during the performance, life cycle and abuse testing. Not only the accuracy, thermocouples are also limited by the response time requirements of Emobility applications such as detection of Thermal Runaway Issues, Charging Point Temperature, Stator Winding Temperature etc.


6. Poor Repeatability 

Thermocouples are made of two dissimilar metallic wires and susceptive to material purity which varies from batch to batch and manufacturer to manufacturer. This variation creates calibration issues resulting into non-repeatability of accurate measurements. Further the chemical composition of metal changes with time especially if they are put into chemical environment like Batteries.


Related Keyphrases:

two dissimilar metal wires | two dissimilar metallic wires | Emobility thermocouples | permanent monitoring afterwards | generated voltage signal | temperature measurement | complex compensation algorithm | Emobility applications | Stator Winding Temperature | Charging Point Temperature | response time requirements | test engineers touch | temperature range | accurate measurements | accurate measurement

Description:

Solution

With the currently available technologies Fiber Optic Temperature sensors stand out clearly to be the most suitable sensors for Emobility applications at higher voltages (250V+). The major benefits of Fiber optic Temperature sensors are: 

1. Safety: Fiber optics are safe – highest dielectric strength, ~1pC, tested up to 1500kV

2. Noise: Sensor are immune to electric, chemical and magnetic environments. Being used without any isolation, in applications that has 1500kV+ voltage, up to 25 Tesla magnetic field and chemical environment ranging from 0 to 14pH without any interference to the sensory readings.

3. Size: Ultra small sensors (Diameter of up to 0.4mm) to fit into tiniest spaces. 

4. Linearity: Fiber optic sensors transmit light signals through glass, the purest form of silica. The sensors are linear and does not need any compensation and special algorithms.

5. Response Time: Fiber optic temperature system has a milliseconds response level. Response rate varies between 1ms to 200ms depending on the type of monitor selected for the application. 

6. Repeatability: Fiber Optic temperature sensors are very stable and repeatable over the entire range without getting influenced by and external fields.

Related Keyphrases:

available technologies Fiber Optic Temperature sensors | Fiber optic temperature system | Fiber optic sensors | Ultra small sensors | 25 Tesla magnetic field | Emobility applications | magnetic environments | suitable sensors | Response rate varies | chemical environment | dielectric strength | Fiber optics | external fields | major benefits

Description:

Since 1996, the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) has hosted awards for exemplary buildings across the UK by RIBA Chartered Architects and RIBA International Fellows. This year, 83 projects have been shortlisted for the RIBA London Awards from a list of 200 entrants. Each project will be visited by one of five London juries during the month of April. Winners will be announced at the award ceremony on May 15th at the RIBA headquarters at 66 Portland Place, London. News of the shortlist follows on from similar selections by RIBA South West, RIBA East, and RIBA North East.

Related Keyphrases:

RIBA Chartered Architects | RIBA International Fellows | RIBA London Awards | RIBA headquarters | RIBA North East | RIBA South West | five London juries | British Architects | exemplary buildings | similar selections | RIBA East | 66 Portland Place | Royal Institute | 200 entrants | 83 projects

Description:

Solution: Rugged Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors

With the currently available technologies Fiber Optic Temperature sensors stand out clearly to be the most suitable sensors for Emobility applications at higher voltages (250V+). The major benefits of Fiber optic Temperature sensors are:

  1. Safety: Fiber optics are safe – highest dielectric strength, ~1pC, tested up to 1500kV
  2. Noise: Sensor are immune to electric, chemical and magnetic environments. Being used without any isolation, in applications that has 1500kV+ voltage, up to 25 Tesla magnetic field and chemical environment ranging from 0 to 14pH without any interference to the sensory readings.
  3. Size: Ultra small sensors (Diameter of up to 0.4mm) to fit into tiniest spaces.
  4. Linearity: Fiber optic sensors transmit light signals through glass, the purest form of silica. The sensors are linear and does not need any compensation and special algorithms.
  5. Response Time: Fiber optic temperature system has a milliseconds response level. Response rate varies between 1ms to 200ms depending on the type of monitor selected for the application.
  6. Repeatability: Fiber Optic temperature sensors are very stable and repeatable over the entire range without getting influenced by and external fields.

Related Keyphrases:

available technologies Fiber Optic Temperature sensors | Fiber Optic Temperature SensorsWith | Fiber optic temperature system | Fiber optic sensors | Ultra small sensors | 25 Tesla magnetic field | Emobility applications | magnetic environments | suitable sensors | Response rate varies | chemical environment | dielectric strength | Fiber optics | external fields | response level

Description:

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum. Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words, consectetur, from a Lorem Ipsum passage, and going through the cites of the word in classical literature, discovered the undoubtable source. Lorem Ipsum comes from sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 of "de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" (The Extremes of Good and Evil) by Cicero, written in 45 BC. This book is a treatise on the theory of ethics, very popular during the Renaissance. The first line of Lorem Ipsum, "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet..", comes from a line in section 1.10.32.

Related Keyphrases:

Lorem Ipsum passage | classical Latin literature | Lorem ipsum dolor sit | desktop publishing software | s standard dummy text | classical literature | obscure Latin words | type specimen book | Richard McClintock | undoubtable source | Latin professor | Aldus PageMaker | popular belief | Finibus Bonorum

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book.

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using 'Content here, content here', making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for 'lorem ipsum' will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words, consectetur, from a Lorem Ipsum passage, and going through the cites of the word in classical literature, discovered the undoubtable source. Lorem Ipsum comes from sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 of "de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" (The Extremes of Good and Evil) by Cicero, written in 45 BC. This book is a treatise on the theory of ethics, very popular during the Renaissance. The first line of Lorem Ipsum, "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet..", comes from a line in section 1.10.32.




Description:

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book.

It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when looking at its layout. The point of using Lorem Ipsum is that it has a more-or-less normal distribution of letters, as opposed to using 'Content here, content here', making it look like readable English. Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for 'lorem ipsum' will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old. Richard McClintock, a Latin professor at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, looked up one of the more obscure Latin words, consectetur, from a Lorem Ipsum passage, and going through the cites of the word in classical literature, discovered the undoubtable source. Lorem Ipsum comes from sections 1.10.32 and 1.10.33 of "de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" (The Extremes of Good and Evil) by Cicero, written in 45 BC. This book is a treatise on the theory of ethics, very popular during the Renaissance. The first line of Lorem Ipsum, "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet..", comes from a line in section 1.10.32.




Related Keyphrases:

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Description:

Advantages of Fiber Optics: Fiber optic monitoring in wood drying provides significant benefits to traditional methods    


  • Test certificates for customer specification compliance    
  • Fiber optic sensors are immune to RF/ Microwave
  • Avoid RF waves burning the center of the beam
  • Continuous Monitoring for quality control  

Products used for this solution: Rugged Monitoring Products used in these applications 


  • Monitors: T 301
  • Sensors: Lsens – T, Rugged capillary
  • Software: Rugged Connect



Related Keyphrases:

customer specification compliance | Rugged Monitoring Products | beamContinuous Monitoring | Rugged capillarySoftware | Fiber optic monitoring | Fiber optic sensors | significant benefits | traditional methods | MicrowaveAvoid RF | Test certificates | quality control | Rugged Connect | MicrowaveAvoid | T 301Sensors | applications