Related to "material"

Thermocouples are widely used in automotive industry for temperature testing at product design and EOL (End of Line) stages and for permanent monitoring afterwards. However, with the increasing voltage levels in Emobility thermocouples possess many risks in product design and testing stages. Some of them are safety related risk and have potential to be life threatening for employees (research and test engineers).

Thermocouples are based on the principles, that a small voltage (in milli-volts) gets produced when a junction (joint) of two dissimilar metal wires is cooled or heated. The generated voltage signal is measured at the other end of the metal wires and calibrated for the temperature range. During the temperature testing the junction end is put on the test object and voltage is being measured at the other end to estimate the temperature of test object.

Now imagine if the two metal wires are put on the 1000 V Battery or Motor for temperature testing and somehow the test engineers touch the wire by mistake. Even worse how accurate will be the milli-volt signal when it passes through an environment where there is high electric and magnetic field.

Without getting into more technicality let us take a closer look on the common reasons why thermocouples have failed in Emobility testing and should be replaced with intrinsically safe sensors.

1. Safety

It is very obvious and common sensical thing to find out the safety risk of using thermocouples in Emobility testing, especially when test engineers have to adjust sensing location such as finding the right hot spot or reach to the measuring points that are not easily accessible (Inverters, Stator Windings, Battery Cooling duct). Thermocouples are subject to creating a short circuit and electrocution risks to the employees.


2. Noise

With the Emobility going towards 1000V and even higher 2500V (for commercial vehicles), thermocouples are highly susceptible to noise. The milli-volt signal requires lot of isolation under such large voltages and even then, the signal is not clear enough to measure accurate temperature.



3. Larger Size  

Thermocouples are not suitable for Emobility applications that has very tiny space for putting sensors such as Charging Points, Invertor IGBTs, Battery Inter-cell temperature measurement etc. It has been observed that thermocouples are less responsive and inaccurate (up to 20 to 30 Deg Celsius) if they are not put directly on the charging points. 


4. Non-Linearity Over The Range  

Though the thermocouples are calibrated for a certain range, they still need complex compensation algorithm to maintain linearity over the range since they are being used at harsh conditions (High electric, chemical and magnetic fields) and different test environments.



5. Longer Response Time  

Faster and accurate measurement is critical for Emobility during the performance, life cycle and abuse testing. Not only the accuracy, thermocouples are also limited by the response time requirements of Emobility applications such as detection of Thermal Runaway Issues, Charging Point Temperature, Stator Winding Temperature etc.


6. Poor Repeatability 

Thermocouples are made of two dissimilar metallic wires and susceptive to material purity which varies from batch to batch and manufacturer to manufacturer. This variation creates calibration issues resulting into non-repeatability of accurate measurements. Further the chemical composition of metal changes with time especially if they are put into chemical environment like Batteries.


Description:

Thermocouples are widely used in automotive industry for temperature testing at product design and EOL (End of Line) stages and for permanent monitoring afterwards. However, with the increasing voltage levels in Emobility thermocouples possess many risks in product design and testing stages. Some of them are safety related risk and have potential to be life threatening for employees (research and test engineers).

Thermocouples are based on the principles, that a small voltage (in milli-volts) gets produced when a junction (joint) of two dissimilar metal wires is cooled or heated. The generated voltage signal is measured at the other end of the metal wires and calibrated for the temperature range. During the temperature testing the junction end is put on the test object and voltage is being measured at the other end to estimate the temperature of test object.

Now imagine if the two metal wires are put on the 1000 V Battery or Motor for temperature testing and somehow the test engineers touch the wire by mistake. Even worse how accurate will be the milli-volt signal when it passes through an environment where there is high electric and magnetic field.

Without getting into more technicality let us take a closer look on the common reasons why thermocouples have failed in Emobility testing and should be replaced with intrinsically safe sensors.

1. Safety

It is very obvious and common sensical thing to find out the safety risk of using thermocouples in Emobility testing, especially when test engineers have to adjust sensing location such as finding the right hot spot or reach to the measuring points that are not easily accessible (Inverters, Stator Windings, Battery Cooling duct). Thermocouples are subject to creating a short circuit and electrocution risks to the employees.


2. Noise

With the Emobility going towards 1000V and even higher 2500V (for commercial vehicles), thermocouples are highly susceptible to noise. The milli-volt signal requires lot of isolation under such large voltages and even then, the signal is not clear enough to measure accurate temperature.



3. Larger Size  

Thermocouples are not suitable for Emobility applications that has very tiny space for putting sensors such as Charging Points, Invertor IGBTs, Battery Inter-cell temperature measurement etc. It has been observed that thermocouples are less responsive and inaccurate (up to 20 to 30 Deg Celsius) if they are not put directly on the charging points. 


4. Non-Linearity Over The Range  

Though the thermocouples are calibrated for a certain range, they still need complex compensation algorithm to maintain linearity over the range since they are being used at harsh conditions (High electric, chemical and magnetic fields) and different test environments.



5. Longer Response Time  

Faster and accurate measurement is critical for Emobility during the performance, life cycle and abuse testing. Not only the accuracy, thermocouples are also limited by the response time requirements of Emobility applications such as detection of Thermal Runaway Issues, Charging Point Temperature, Stator Winding Temperature etc.


6. Poor Repeatability 

Thermocouples are made of two dissimilar metallic wires and susceptive to material purity which varies from batch to batch and manufacturer to manufacturer. This variation creates calibration issues resulting into non-repeatability of accurate measurements. Further the chemical composition of metal changes with time especially if they are put into chemical environment like Batteries.


Related Keyphrases:

two dissimilar metal wires | two dissimilar metallic wires | Emobility thermocouples | permanent monitoring afterwards | generated voltage signal | temperature measurement | complex compensation algorithm | Emobility applications | Stator Winding Temperature | Charging Point Temperature | response time requirements | test engineers touch | temperature range | accurate measurements | accurate measurement

Description:

Thermocouples are widely used in automotive industry for temperature testing at product design and EOL (End of Line) stages and for permanent monitoring afterwards. However, with the increasing voltage levels in Emobility thermocouples posses many risks in product design and testing stages. Some of them are safety related risk and have potential to be life threatening for employees (research and test engineers).

Researchers and testing experts in Emobility have seen the following major challenges with using Thermocouples for temperature testing in high voltage applications.

  1. Safety: Thermocouples are subject to creating a short circuit and electrocution risks to the employees.
  2. Noise: With the Emobility going towards 1000V and even higher 2500V (for commercial vehicles), thermocouples are highly susceptible to noise.
  3. Linearity: Though the thermocouples are calibrated for a certain range, they still need complex compensation algorithm to maintain linearity over the range
  4. Response Time: Thermocouples are not fast enough and accurate for thermal profiling of key components of Electric Vehicles such as Charging Points, Battery, Motor Windings and Power Electronics.
  5. Repeatability: Thermocouples are made of two dissimilar metallic wires and susceptive to material purity which varies from batch to batch and manufacturer to manufacturer.

Related Keyphrases:

permanent monitoring afterwards | complex compensation algorithm | two dissimilar metallic wires | Emobility thermocouples | electrocution risks | commercial vehicles | automotive industry | rangeResponse Time | Electric Vehicles | major challenges | product design | material purity | voltage levels | Charging Points | key components

Description:

Why Wood drying

In the wood industry, wood is dried

• Remove moisture

• Improve structural integrity to avoid damage from shrinkage

• Control the color, shape

• Elimination of living organisms like insects and parasites.

Advantages of Microwave/RF Drying

• Fast drying ( 2 days in a Kiln instead of 2 month in the back yard ) 

• The most homogeneous drying process

• Minimize danger of cracks, shape and changing the color of wood

• Avoiding burning the center of the beam


Chemical free

• Methyl bromide (MeBr) has been widely used to decontaminate wood infected by living organisms.

• MeBr is highly toxic and depletes the stratospheric ozone layer, the use of Microwave is non toxic and eco friendly

Typical Customers

• Wood processors

• Wood Exporters

• Furniture manufacturers

• Shipping material providers

Advantages of Fiber Optics

Fiber optic monitoring in wood drying provides significant benefits to traditional methods

• Test certificates for customer specification compliance

• Fiber optic sensors are immune to RF/ Microwave

• Avoid RF waves burning the center of the beam

• Continuous Monitoring for quality control

Advantages of Fiber Optics

Fiber optic monitoring in wood drying provides significant benefits to traditional methods


• Sensors 

• Monitors

• Softwarea






Related Keyphrases:

Fiber OpticsFiber optic monitoring | customer specification compliance | Improve structural integrity | material providersAdvantages | stratospheric ozone layer | friendlyTypical Customers | quality controlAdvantages | decontaminate wood | Fiber optic sensors | Furniture manufacturers | significant benefits | Continuous Monitoring | traditional methods | bull | wood industry

Description:

A heavy duty fiber optic temperature sensor specially designed for harsh and dynamic operating conditions where stress on the Fiber Optic Cable is more than normal. The sensor offers complete immunity to RFI, EMI, NMR, Corrosive and microwave radiation making it the best choice for all demanding applications. The standard temperature sensor has a response time of 0.2 s. with a standard deviation of +/-0.2 °C. Each sensor allows precise and repeatable measurements. The coating of the temperature sensor is made of heavy duty material, while the fiber tip has a diameter of 1.1mm and has a stainless steel ST-connector. For mechanical stability and applications e.g. in oil special protective coatings and hoses are available. The fiber optic probe consists of a PTFE protected glass fiber and a GaAs-crystal (Gallium Arsenide) at the sensor tip. It is totally free of metal and immune to external fields, therefore probes are explicitly suitable for use in high temperature ranges as well as in aggressive operating environments. The sensor cable can be from several meters to kilometers long without influencing the accuracy of the measurement result. Other sensor lengths and connector types are available upon request.

Related Keyphrases:

heavy duty fiber optic temperature sensor | sensor offers complete immunity | standard temperature sensor | aggressive operating environments | oil special protective coatings | dynamic operating conditions | repeatable measurements | heavy duty material | fiber optic probe | mechanical stability | high temperature | microwave radiation | sensor lengths | standard deviation | measurement result

Description:

The Rugged Monitoring Tsens probes have been designed and built so they can be incorporated in your transformers to give precise results (direct measurements of temperature). The sensing technology is based on the proven zero-drift GaAs technology. They are completely built using first quality materials, all with very high dielectric strength, so your transformers can benefit from accurate temperature readings, which is essential to a good knowledge of transformer aging rate. During a factory heatrun tests these probes will give to both transformer manufacturer and operator invaluable information regarding the transformer expected MVA performance. The patented tip construction makes them extremely robust, while being very easy to install in radial spacers or in other pressboard material (such as for temperature measurements in yokes or other transformer components). The spiral-wrap cable is especially constructed to allow complete oil penetration so you can be assured that no air can be present. All materials used in the probe construction are compatible with high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes.

Related Keyphrases:

high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes | accurate temperature readings | operator invaluable information | allow complete oil penetration | temperature measurements | transformer manufacturer | high dielectric strength | transformer components | first quality materials | Monitoring Tsens probes | factory heatrun tests | direct measurements | probe construction | tip construction | GaAs technology

Description:

A heavy duty fiber optic temperature sensor specially designed for harsh and dynamic operating conditions where stress on the Fiber Optic Cable is more than normal. The sensor offers complete immunity to RFI, EMI, NMR, Corrosive and microwave radiation making it the best choice for all demanding applications. The standard temperature sensor has a response time of 0.2 s. with a standard deviation of +/-0.2 °C. Each sensor allows precise and repeatable measurements. The coating of the temperature sensor is made of heavy duty material, while the fiber tip has a diameter of 1.1mm and has a stainless steel ST-connector. For mechanical stability and applications e.g. in oil special protective coatings and hoses are available. The fiber optic probe consists of a PTFE protected glass fiber and a GaAs-crystal (Gallium Arsenide) at the sensor tip. It is totally free of metal and immune to external fields, therefore probes are explicitly suitable for use in high temperature ranges as well as in aggressive operating environments. The sensor cable can be from several meters to kilometers long without influencing the accuracy of the measurement result. Other sensor lengths and connector types are available upon request.

Related Keyphrases:

heavy duty fiber optic temperature sensor | sensor offers complete immunity | standard temperature sensor | aggressive operating environments | oil special protective coatings | dynamic operating conditions | repeatable measurements | heavy duty material | fiber optic probe | mechanical stability | high temperature | microwave radiation | sensor lengths | standard deviation | measurement result

Description:

The Rugged Monitoring Tsens probes have been designed and built so they can be incorporated in your transformers to give precise results (direct measurements of temperature). The sensing technology is based on the proven zero-drift GaAs technology. They are completely built using first quality materials, all with very high dielectric strength, so your transformers can benefit from accurate temperature readings, which is essential to a good knowledge of transformer aging rate. During a factory heatrun tests these probes will give to both transformer manufacturer and operator invaluable information regarding the transformer expected MVA performance. The patented tip construction makes them extremely robust, while being very easy to install in radial spacers or in other pressboard material (such as for temperature measurements in yokes or other transformer components). The spiral-wrap cable is especially constructed to allow complete oil penetration so you can be assured that no air can be present. All materials used in the probe construction are compatible with high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes.

Related Keyphrases:

high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes | accurate temperature readings | operator invaluable information | allow complete oil penetration | temperature measurements | transformer manufacturer | high dielectric strength | transformer components | first quality materials | Monitoring Tsens probes | factory heatrun tests | direct measurements | probe construction | tip construction | GaAs technology

Description:

The Rugged Monitoring Tsens probes have been designed and built so they can be incorporated in your transformers to give precise results (direct measurements of temperature). The sensing technology is based on the proven zero-drift GaAs technology. They are completely built using first quality materials, all with very high dielectric strength, so your transformers can benefit from accurate temperature readings, which is essential to a good knowledge of transformer aging rate. During a factory heatrun tests these probes will give to both transformer manufacturer and operator invaluable information regarding the transformer expected MVA performance. The patented tip construction makes them extremely robust, while being very easy to install in radial spacers or in other pressboard material (such as for temperature measurements in yokes or other transformer components). The spiral-wrap cable is especially constructed to allow complete oil penetration so you can be assured that no air can be present. All materials used in the probe construction are compatible with high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes.

Related Keyphrases:

high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes | accurate temperature readings | operator invaluable information | allow complete oil penetration | temperature measurements | transformer manufacturer | high dielectric strength | transformer components | first quality materials | Monitoring Tsens probes | factory heatrun tests | direct measurements | probe construction | tip construction | GaAs technology

Description:

The Rugged Monitoring Tsens probes have been designed and built so they can be incorporated in your transformers to give precise results (direct measurements of temperature). The sensing technology is based on the proven zero-drift GaAs technology. They are completely built using first quality materials, all with very high dielectric strength, so your transformers can benefit from accurate temperature readings, which is essential to a good knowledge of transformer aging rate. During a factory heatrun tests these probes will give to both transformer manufacturer and operator invaluable information regarding the transformer expected MVA performance. The patented tip construction makes them extremely robust, while being very easy to install in radial spacers or in other pressboard material (such as for temperature measurements in yokes or other transformer components). The spiral-wrap cable is especially constructed to allow complete oil penetration so you can be assured that no air can be present. All materials used in the probe construction are compatible with high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes.

Related Keyphrases:

high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes | accurate temperature readings | operator invaluable information | allow complete oil penetration | temperature measurements | transformer manufacturer | high dielectric strength | transformer components | first quality materials | Monitoring Tsens probes | factory heatrun tests | direct measurements | probe construction | tip construction | GaAs technology

Description:

The Rugged Monitoring Tsens probes have been designed and built so they can be incorporated in your transformers to give precise results (direct measurements of temperature). The sensing technology is based on the proven zero-drift GaAs technology. They are completely built using first quality materials, all with very high dielectric strength, so your transformers can benefit from accurate temperature readings, which is essential to a good knowledge of transformer aging rate. During a factory heatrun tests these probes will give to both transformer manufacturer and operator invaluable information regarding the transformer expected MVA performance. The patented tip construction makes them extremely robust, while being very easy to install in radial spacers or in other pressboard material (such as for temperature measurements in yokes or other transformer components). The spiral-wrap cable is especially constructed to allow complete oil penetration so you can be assured that no air can be present. All materials used in the probe construction are compatible with high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes.

Related Keyphrases:

high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes | accurate temperature readings | operator invaluable information | allow complete oil penetration | temperature measurements | transformer manufacturer | high dielectric strength | transformer components | first quality materials | Monitoring Tsens probes | factory heatrun tests | direct measurements | probe construction | tip construction | GaAs technology

Description:

The Rugged Monitoring Tsens probes have been designed and built so they can be incorporated in your transformers to give precise results (direct measurements of temperature). The sensing technology is based on the proven zero-drift GaAs technology. They are completely built using first quality materials, all with very high dielectric strength, so your transformers can benefit from accurate temperature readings, which is essential to a good knowledge of transformer aging rate. During a factory heatrun tests these probes will give to both transformer manufacturer and operator invaluable information regarding the transformer expected MVA performance. The patented tip construction makes them extremely robust, while being very easy to install in radial spacers or in other pressboard material (such as for temperature measurements in yokes or other transformer components). The spiral-wrap cable is especially constructed to allow complete oil penetration so you can be assured that no air can be present. All materials used in the probe construction are compatible with high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes.

Related Keyphrases:

high temperature kerosene desoprtion processes | accurate temperature readings | operator invaluable information | allow complete oil penetration | temperature measurements | transformer manufacturer | high dielectric strength | transformer components | first quality materials | Monitoring Tsens probes | factory heatrun tests | direct measurements | probe construction | tip construction | GaAs technology

Description:

Microwave heating is very popular for quick and selective digestion of materials in various industries e.g. Food and feed, Pharmaceutical, Chemistry, Environmental, etc. In these application, the sample is mixed into an acid mixture and heated to high temperature, up to 250 or 300???C. However, spontaneous heating of acid mixture induces exothermic reaction resulting into very rapid change in temperature and pressure.

Therefore, faster and accurate monitoring of temperature and pressure is crucial in minimizing safety risks. Fiber optic sensors for temperature and pressure measurement have been widely successful in microwave assisted digestion applications due their immunity to electro magnetic field within the microwaves.

Related Keyphrases:

acid mixture induces exothermic reaction | digestion applications due | minimizing safety risks | pressure measurement | selective digestion | accurate monitoring | Fiber optic sensors | high temperature | various industries | Pharmaceutical | magnetic field | temperature | Environmental | rapid change | spontaneous

Description:

Why Wood drying: In the wood industry, wood is dried     


  • Remove moisture 
  • Improve structural integrity to avoid damage from shrinkage    
  • Control the color, shape    
  • Elimination of living organisms like insects and parasites.

Advantages of Microwave/RF Drying:    


  • Fast drying ( 2 days in a Kiln instead of 2 month in the back yard )
  • The most homogeneous drying process
  • Minimize danger of cracks, shape and changing the color of wood    
  • Avoiding burning the center of the beam  

Chemical free     


  • Methyl bromide (MeBr) has been widely used to decontaminate wood infected by living organisms.
  • MeBr is highly toxic and depletes the stratospheric ozone layer, the use of Microwave is non toxic and eco friendly 

Typical Costomers


  • Wood Processors
  • Wood Exporters
  • Furniture Manufacturers
  • Shipping Material Provider

Related Keyphrases:

Typical CostomersWood ProcessorsWood ExportersFurniture ManufacturersShipping Material Provider | Improve structural integrity | stratospheric ozone layer | processMinimize danger | decontaminate wood | nbsp | living organisms | wood industry | Remove moisture | Methyl bromide | decontaminate | Chemical free | stratospheric | avoid damage | homogeneous